Second language pragmatics has recently been a prevailing topic in the field of second language teaching. While many studies have been conducted about why, how and what to incorporate regarding the teaching of pragmatic competence, there are still unsolved issues about them. This study addresses the possibility of developing pragmatic competence in EFL classrooms through well-designed curricular courses. The study also examined the impact of proficiency in expediting pragmatic production in English L2 learners. Fifty senior university students (25 males, 25 females) with English high proficiency attended the course, participating in a pre-test before instruction began and a post-test upon course completion. The study addresses several significant questions, namely the relationship of proficiency and development of pragmatic competence, the impact of class-based explicit instruction in raising competence, and the role of gender as an influencing factor affecting competence. Unlike previous studies, this study covered more than one aspect of pragmatic production, including inference, implicatures, structural errors in meaning and interpretation, and speech act.
The translation features typically used in state-of-the-art statistical machine translation (SMT) model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves. A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling directly into log-linear phrase-based SMT (PB-SMT) and hierarchical PB-SMT (HPB-SMT), and can positively influence the weighting and selection of target phrases, and thus improve translation quality. In this book we present novel approaches to incorporate source-language contextual modelling into the state-of-the-art SMT models in order to enhance the quality of lexical selection. We investigate the effectiveness of use of a range of contextual features, including lexical features of neighbouring words, part-of-speech tags, supertags, sentence-similarity features, dependency information, and semantic roles. We explored a series of language pairs featuring typologically different languages, and examined the scalability of our research to larger amounts of training data.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder characterized by weakness, paralysis, or poor coordination of the muscles responsible for speech. Although automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have been developed for disordered speech, factors such as low intelligibility and limited phonemic repertoire decrease speech recognition accuracy. Furthermore, conventional speaker adaptation algorithms that improve normal speech recognition may not perform as well on dysarthric speakers. Instead of adapting the system, two main techniques are proposed to model the pronunciation errors made by the speaker: (1) a set of discrete hidden markov models (termed as "metamodels") that incorporate a model of the speaker's phonetic confusion-matrix into the ASR process, and (2) a network of Weighted Finite-State Transducers (WFSTs) at the confusion-matrix, word and language levels. These error modelling techniques attempt to correct the errors made at the phonetic level and make use of a language model to find the best estimate of the correct word sequence. Hence, these techniques when integrated into the speech recognition process performed significant error correction and improved speech recognition
Since the beginning of times music has played an essential role in human society and language development. Music and song comprise a significant part in the development of human speech and language learning processes. This book aims to study the effectiveness of music and songs of The Beatles in teaching English as a foreign language. The book analyzes several language acquisition hypotheses and theories, along with discussing different teaching methodologies that incorporate music and song as a major teaching component in the foreign language acquisition. Likewise, it provides worksheets of possible activities that make use of The Beatles' songs. Special focus is on the psychological part of language learning and the role of interaction between music and the human brain in terms of occurrence of the din and involuntary mental rehearsal, which suggest that songs are an effective aid to memorization. The analysis should draw attention to this new and exciting way of foreign language learning, and should be especially useful to professionals in the fields of linguistics and language teaching methodology, as well as foreign language learners.
Philosophy,literary criticism and the creative mind are my cup of tea forever, especially for the most intricate ideas and for which I know, the subject of my book can rightly earn itself quite a credit for that. The book which is offered to you as the reader, explores Henri Bergson's notions of Durée and simultaneity in Sadeq Hedayat's The Blind Owl (1937) and William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury (1929), two prominent Modernist narratives in contemporary Iranian and American literature.This book demonstrates how Bergsonian interpretation of temporality (durée) manifests itself in Hedayat's The Blind Owl and Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, which incorporate all the standard features of stream of consciousness and monologue writing and which deliberately defy the traditional temporal division through analysis of the similarities and differences in structure, techniques and entity of the two texts. It examines the narratological qualities of stream of consciousness on the level of the language-speech and pre-speech level- in both texts- to argue the nature of memory images. It will be a practical help for all researchers interested in Bergson and time in concept and practice.
The central theme of this book -The origins of human choral singing - is discussed in the wide interdisciplinary context of the origins of music, evolution of human intelligence, language, speech, distribution of stuttering, dyslexia, and acquisition of phonological system by children from different cultures. Scholars view about the first edition of this book : - SIMHA AROM, CNRS, France : " I totally agree with the main idea of Joseph Jordania about the ancient origins of choral singing and its gradual disappearance. To my opinion also,there is no "evolution" from monophonic to polyphonic singing, and I was glad to see that the argumentation of this idea is so strong and logic" . - STEVEN BROWN, Simon Fraser University,Canada :"Joseph Jordania's book is a masterpiece of comparative musicology by a person with an amazing knowledge base. As a co-editor of the book "The Origins of Music"(2000),I am thrilled to finally see a true work of comparative musicology appear after many decades of neglect. This is the kind of material that people,from psychology to evolutionary biology, need to ponder as to incorporate music into the emerging picture of human evolution".
Learn how to incorporate your own conversational interfaces into iOS applications. This book will help you work comfortably multiple frameworks, including Apple's Speech and SiriKit frameworks, Google's API.AI conversational interfaces platform, and Facebook's Wit.ai.You'll explore the basics of natural language processing on iOS and see how to develop sentiment analysis with Apple's new Core ML framework. You'll also understand the primary challenges of conversational interfaces, and how to future proof your design. With the introduction of SiriKit and the Speech framework, iOS developers now have huge opportunities to incorporate conversational interfaces into their apps. The latest advancements in natural language processing and machine learning allow for the development of complex conversational interfaces. This book incorporates all aspects of conversational interfaces on iOS-from voice transcription to natural language processing and entities extraction to text to speech commands.What You'll LearnIntegrate intelligent voice interfaces into iOS applicationsUse frameworks to enable voice reactive iOS applicationsFuture proof your interface by understanding the expected future trends of voice recognition Who This Book Is For Primarily iOS developers, product and innovation managers, and UX experts. It will also be helpful to all developers/managers that want to provide conversational interfaces in their apps.
This comprehensive, full-color reference provides a thorough overview of the most recent advances in laryngeal imaging technology combined with all of the information readers need to interpret findings and successfully manage patients with voice disorders.After a solid introduction to laryngeal anatomy and physiology, separate sections cover the entire spectrum of laryngeal imaging systems. The authors place special emphasis on the interpretation of abnormal vibratory characteristics through practical discussion of the differential diagnosis of specific abnormalities and the impact of various types of laryngeal pathology on the vocal cords. The accompanying DVD features high-quality video clips of vocal fold vibration that clearly demonstrate every pathology and evaluation technique cited in the text. Each clip is cross-referenced to a specific location in the book for maximum accessibility.Features:- In-depth coverage of the indications and limitations of flexible laryngoscopy, videostroboscopy, and high-speed imaging- 66 video clips of actual examinations - plus an appendix that contains a complete description and interpretation of each clip- 284 full color images, including endoscopic views of the larynx and photographs that demonstrate how to perform examinations- Multiple perspectives from renowned speech language pathologists and otolaryngologists on how to interpret findings and determine treatment optionsWritten by a multidisciplinary team of experts, this book will help speech-language pathologists, otolaryngologists, and trainees in those specialties acquire the necessary skills to enable them to expand their practices to incorporate laryngeal imaging procedures in the clinical setting.
A how-to-guide on providing an evidence-based, patient- and family-centered care service in speech-language pathology and audiologyPatient and family-centered care is a vital component of improving treatment satisfaction and measurable success. Patient and Family-Centered Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology focuses on teaching speech-language pathology and audiology students how to develop and incorporate this model into everyday practice. Carly Meyer, Nerina Scarinci, Louise Hickson, and an impressive array of international authors share personal experiences and pearls that prepare students with both scientific evidence and practical information for implementation. The content reflects a cross-collaborative approach, with contributions from speech-language pathologists and audiologists, as well as other health professionals including psychologists and occupational therapists.Key Features:Professional topics including preparation and planning for patient- and family-centered care in the practice setting, needs assessments, multidisciplinary collaboration, and cultural and linguistic diversityReal-life cases, description of evidence-based patient outcomes, and firsthand insights included in each chapterLearning objectives, boxed features such as student activities and helpful tips, questions for consideration, and end of chapter summaries enhance retention and integration of knowledge29 video case examples that include interviews with patients, families, and clinicians, as well as demonstrations of patient- and family-centered care in action