Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder characterized by weakness, paralysis, or poor coordination of the muscles responsible for speech. Although automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have been developed for disordered speech, factors such as low intelligibility and limited phonemic repertoire decrease speech recognition accuracy. Furthermore, conventional speaker adaptation algorithms that improve normal speech recognition may not perform as well on dysarthric speakers. Instead of adapting the system, two main techniques are proposed to model the pronunciation errors made by the speaker: (1) a set of discrete hidden markov models (termed as "metamodels") that incorporate a model of the speaker's phonetic confusion-matrix into the ASR process, and (2) a network of Weighted Finite-State Transducers (WFSTs) at the confusion-matrix, word and language levels. These error modelling techniques attempt to correct the errors made at the phonetic level and make use of a language model to find the best estimate of the correct word sequence. Hence, these techniques when integrated into the speech recognition process performed significant error correction and improved speech recognition
The Maserati Kyalami (named after South Africa's Formula One circuit) was a new model rushed into production after Alessandro de Tomaso took helm of the company. De Tomaso, never shy of copying anything good (confer his Deauville, a smoothed-out copy of Jaguar's XJ 6, or his sports car prototype shown at the Turin Salon in 1974, a virtual carbon copy of Fiat's X1/9), took Tom Tjaarda's design of the De Tomaso Longchamp (itself inspired by the Mercedes 450SLC) modified the front and rear end to create a distinctive Maserati feel for the new car. The interior was also upgraded to incorporate classic Maserati elements such the steering wheel and instrumentation. The Kyalami, a four-seater notchback coupe, was launched at the 1976 Geneva Motor Show and was initially available with Maserati's 4.2 litre V-8 engine (255 hp) and, starting in 1978, with a 4.9 litre-V8 delivering 290 hp, both engines coupled with a ZF 5-speed manual transmission or on request a 3-speed automatic.
This book primarily focuses on the study of various neurological disorders, including Parkinson's (PD), Huntington (HD), Epilepsy, Alzheimer's and Motor Neuron Diseases (MND) from a new perspective by analyzing the physiological signals associated with them using non-linear dynamics.The development of nonlinear methods has significantly helped to study complex nonlinear systems in detail by providing accurate and reliable information. The book provides a brief introduction to the central nervous system and its various disorders, their effects on health and quality of life, and their respective courses of treatment, followed by different bioelectrical signals like those detected by Electroencephalography (EEG), Electrocardiography (ECG), and Electromyography (EMG). In turn, the book discusses a range of nonlinear techniques, fractals, multifractals, and Higuchi's Fractal Dimension (HFD), with mathematical examples and procedures. A review of studies conducted to date on neurological disorders like epilepsy, dementia, Parkinson's, Huntington, Alzheimer's, and Motor Neuron Diseases, which incorporate linear and nonlinear techniques, is also provided. The book subsequently presents new findings on neurological disorders of the central nervous system, namely Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, by analyzing their gait characteristics using a nonlinear fractal based technique: Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). In closing, the book elaborates on several parameters that can be obtained from cross-correlation studies of ECG and blood pressure, and can be used as markers for neurological disorders.
Synesthetic design strives to develop products that systematically incorporate all five senses. In future, the current wealth of medical technical insights in psychology, physiology, motor functions, and neurology and the development of innovative materials with astonishing new properties will open up almost unlimited opportunities for the designer's creativity. Haverkamp brings together for the first time precisely those aspects of this fundamental knowledge that are specifically relevant for designers. The result is a book that offers designers of all schools a clear and well-organized practical handbook and a solid foundation for their own designs. heir own designs.
Physical activity does not start and end in the gymnasium during the school day. It happens all around, every day to make the best lifelong learners. Elementary Classroom Teachers as Movement Educators discusses how teachers can incorporate movement into their daily lessons to help students better learn and engage in a healthy lifestyle. This updated fourth edition continues to cover the traditional physical education content including motor learning and development, exercise physiology, curriculum, safety, and pedagogy in an in-depth way that is meaningful to the classroom teacher. In addition, the book emphasizes motivating children to be active, teaching activity to children with special needs, and integrating subject content and physical activity in the classroom.
Stop, Think, Act: Integrating Self-regulation in the Early Childhood Classroom offers early childhood teachers the latest research and a wide variety of hands-on activities to help children learn and practice self-regulation techniques. Self-regulation in early childhood leads to strong academic performance, helps students form healthy friendships, and gives them the social and emotional resources they need to face high-stress situations throughout life. The book takes you through everything you need to know about using self-regulation principles during circle time, in literacy and math instruction, and during gross motor and outdoor play.&#12288; Each chapter includes a solid research base as well as practical, developmentally-appropriate games, songs, and strategies that you can easily incorporate in your own classroom. With Stop, Think, Act, you&#8217;ll be prepared to integrate self-regulation into every aspect of the school day.&#12288;
This is a comprehensive, user-friendly music and movement program for young children (ages 2-7) which covers all aspects of learning ? cognitive, linguistic, social/emotional and aesthetic. Teachers will be able to apply the lessons to learning areas in the curriculum as well as develop musical and listening skills through drama, dance and song. Parents wishing to extend and enhance their child's development will also benefit from the detailed notes on how to use music creatively. This fully illustrated book and the two accompanying music CDs incorporate songs, rhymes, fingerplays, music skills and percussion; as well as dance, drama, motor skills, listening skills, flexibility and relaxation.
Get moving to prime the body for learning! All young students sometimes need a little extra help developing their senses. And many kids who are labeled as &#8220;problem students&#8221; simply lack the physical skills necessary to sit still, pay attention or even hold a pencil. Sensorcises helps students develop the very basic sensory skills needed for learning. Learn how to address the needs of these learners and help them develop the sensory motor skills they need to succeed. In this invigorating book, the author explores the REAL technique-Relax, Energize, Activate and Lead. By providing clear, step-by-step instructions, this book shows you how to design activity sequences to help students with sensory dysfunction as well as all the other learners in your K-5 classes. The author makes it incredibly easy to incorporate these exercises into any curriculum. Each research-based activity is fully described and illustrated with photographs to assist with classroom implementation. You AND your whole class will benefit from Sensorcises! They are the perfect way to boost energy levels while helping students focus their mind, body, and senses on achieving success.
A revised and updated edition of this popular step-by-step guide to baby development When 'Baby Steps was first published in 1993, it was named one of the 10 Best Parenting Books by 'Child magazine. Now, this popular guide to baby's first two years has been completely revised to incorporate the latest research on the young child's developing brain and behavior, including brand-new material on temperament, language, and memory. 'Baby Steps pinpoints the important events in an infant's life, examining them month by month for the first year, and in three-month intervals during the second year. Beginning with a 'miniguide' to early development, the book goes on to a cover such important subjects as sleep, crying, colic, motor development, social play, and toilet training. Developmental hints and alerts throughout the book provide parents with a clear understanding of the full range of 'normal' behaviors for each phase, helping to allay common anxieties. An accessible, concrete guide to infant and toddler behavior,' Baby Steps takes much of the guesswork out of parenting. 'In contrast to all the 'how to' guides, this book provides readers with the in-depth developmental understanding they need to cultivate parenting techniques that work best for them and their toddler.' -'Child magazine