In the first of the three volumes of his projected comprehensive narrative history of the role of law in America from the colonial years through the twentieth century, G. Edward White takes up the central themes of American legal history from the earliest European settlements through the Civil War. Included in the coverage of this volume are the interactions between European and Amerindian legal systems in the years of colonial settlement; the crucial role of Anglo-American theories of sovereignty and imperial governance in facilitating the separation of the American colonies from the British Empire in the late eighteenth century; the American ´´experiment´´ with federated republican constitutionalism in the founding period; the major importance of agricultural householding, in the form of slave plantations as well as farms featuring wage labor, in helping to shape the development of American law in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; the emergence of the Supreme Court of the United States as an authoritative force in American law and politics in the early nineteenth century; the interactions between law, westward expansion, and transformative developments in transportation and communication in the antebellum years; the contributions of American legal institutions to the dissolution of the Union of American states in the three decades after 1830; and the often-overlooked legal history of the Confederacy and Union governments during the Civil War. White incorporates recent scholarship in anthropology, ethnography, and economic, political, intellectual and legal history to produce a narrative that is both revisionist and accessible, taking up the familiar topics of race, gender, slavery, and the treatment of native Americans from fresh perspectives. Along the way he provides a compelling case for why law can be seen as the key to understanding the development of American life as we know it. Law in American History, Volume 1 will be an ess 1. Language: English. Narrator: Graeme Spicer. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/adbl/011573/bk_adbl_011573_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Theatre has long been an art form of subterfuge and concealment. Working in the Wings: New Perspectives on Theatre History and Labor, edited by Elizabeth A. Osborne and Christine Woodworth, brings attention to what goes on behind-the-scenes, challenging and revising our understanding of work, theatre, and history. The essays consider a range of historic moments and geographic locations - from African Americans´ performance of the cakewalk in Florida´s resort hotels during the Gilded Age to the UAW Union Theatre and striking automobile workers in post-World War II Detroit to the creative struggle in the latter part of the 20th century to finish an adaptation of Moby Dick for the stage before the memory of creator, Rinde Eckert, fails. Contributors incorporate methodologies and theories from fields as diverse as theatre history, work studies, legal studies, economics, and literature, and draw on traditional archival materials, including performance texts and architectural structures, as well as less tangible material traces of stagecraft. Working in the Wings looks at the ways in which workers´ identities are shaped, influenced, and dictated by what they do; the traces left behind by workers whose contributions have been overwritten; the intersections between the sometimes repetitive and sometimes destructive process of creation and the end result - the play or performance; and the ways in which theatre affects the popular imagination. This collected volume draws attention to the significance of work in the theatre, encouraging a fresh examination of this important subject in the history of the theatre and beyond. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Cynthia Wallace. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/058189/bk_acx0_058189_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Among all the periods in ancient Egyptian history, the Ptolemaic Kingdom and its most famous ruler, Cleopatra, may be the most well-known today. By the 4th century BCE, it appeared as though ancient Egypt was in its final death throes. It had long ceased to be an influential kingdom in the Near East and Mediterranean regions, and it had been ruled over by a succession of foreign peoples including Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians, and Persians. But just when Egypt seemed was doomed to pass forever into obscurity, it was reinvigorated by outsiders, most notably Alexander the Great. While in the process of campaigning to destroy the Achaemenid Persian Empire and conquer the world in 331 BC, he made a pit stop in Egypt that forever changed the course of Egyptian history. Although his understanding of ancient Egyptian chronology and religion was minimal, Alexander was intrigued by ancient pharaonic culture, knowing, as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus once wrote, ´´Egypt is the gift of the Nile.” As a result, Alexander endeavored to incorporate the land of the pharaohs into Hellenic Civilization. In the latter first century BC, men like Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, and Octavian participated in two civil wars that would spell the end of the Roman Republic and determine who would become the Roman emperor. In the middle of it all was history’s most famous woman, Cleopatra, who famously seduced both Caesar and Antony and thereby positioned herself as one of the most influential people in a world of powerful men. Cleopatra was a legendary figure even to contemporary Romans and the ancient world, and she was a controversial figure who was equally reviled and praised through the years, depicted both as a benevolent ruler and an evil seductress (occasionally at the same time). As for Roman Egypt, the period from 30 BC until the Roman Empire was split into two halves in the fourth century CE. It is scarcely mentioned, yet, it was a time when Egypt, 1. Language: English. Narrator: Colin Fluxman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/134117/bk_acx0_134117_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
The sole art that suits me is that which, rising from unrest, tends toward serenity. This quote by André Gide perfectly encapsulates the story of the Titans. Most commonly known as the antagonists of the pantheon of gods led by Zeus, the Titans embody ´´unrest´´ and ´´transience´´ for the modern listener, but for reasons less than the obvious. History, after all, is the story of the winners, and the world of the ancient Greeks was a world of a very real, highly querulous pantheon that it behooved ancient writers to glorify in their works. Unlike the other gods, the Titans´ appearance in ancient Greek writing is limited, and the full treatment of their ´´history´´ appears, predominantly, in just two works: Hesiod´s Theogony and Works and Days. The story of the Titans appears in both works in different degrees of detail, and for that reason, any work about their story has to incorporate references from each. Rather than becoming ensnared in source criticism, it´s necessary to combine the works to create a fuller picture of the mythology Hesiod expounds. For example, it´s worth noting that the Theogony, at least, has all of the hallmarks of a ´´hymn to the glory of Zeus the King.´´ The reason for this is that, throughout the work, Zeus is lauded as being the progenitor of ´´order´´ in the cosmos, once he had defeated his enemies and ceased to battle monsters. It will soon become apparent that Zeus is not only the ´´lord of gods and men,´´ but also the revolutionary leader of a new power system. This understanding of the cosmos as a political arena is vital to the interpretation of the myth of the Titans. By looking at these works of Hesiod, it´s possible to get a better understanding of how the ancient Greeks viewed their cosmos, their pantheon of gods, and the power struggles their deities went through in order to become dominant celestial beings. The Titans play a much larger part in this process than they are often 1. Language: English. Narrator: Jim D. Johnston. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/077729/bk_acx0_077729_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Among all the periods in ancient Egyptian history, the Ptolemaic Kingdom and its most famous ruler, Cleopatra, may be the most well-known today. By the 4th century BCE, it appeared as though ancient Egypt was in its final death throes. It had long ceased to be an influential kingdom in the Near East and Mediterranean regions, and it had been ruled over by a succession of foreign peoples including Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians, and Persians. But just when Egypt seemed was doomed to pass forever into obscurity, it was reinvigorated by outsiders, most notably Alexander the Great. While in the process of campaigning to destroy the Achaemenid Persian Empire and conquer the world in 331 BCE, he made a pit stop in Egypt that forever changed the course of Egyptian history. Although his understanding of ancient Egyptian chronology and religion was minimal, Alexander was intrigued by ancient pharaonic culture, knowing, as the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus once wrote, ´´Egypt is the gift of the Nile.” As a result, Alexander endeavored to incorporate the land of the pharaohs into Hellenic Civilization. Although Alexander never lived to rule over Egypt, one of his generals, Ptolemy I, did, and it was he who established the last great pharaonic dynasty in Egypt, known as the Ptolemaic Dynasty. The Ptolemies gave ancient Egypt an injection of vitality that had not been seen in the Nile Valley for centuries, preserving many aspects of native Egyptian culture while adding their own layer of Hellenic culture. The first few Ptolemaic rulers proved as able as any of their Egyptian predecessors as they worked to make Egypt a first-rate power in the world once again. Unfortunately, these able rulers were followed by a succession of corrupt and greedy kings, more concerned with personal wealth and power than the stability and greatness of their kingdom. Eventually, Ptolemaic Egypt collapsed due to weak rulers, internal social problems, and the rising power of Rome, 1. Language: English. Narrator: Scott Clem. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/101359/bk_acx0_101359_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Spain’s geographical position has made it a focus of attention throughout history for numerous migrants, traders, colonizers, and conquerors alike. Iberia, also known as Hispaniola or Hispania, is in the southwestern corner of Europe and is separated from Africa by a mere eight miles, the point at which the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic. The whole of the Iberian Peninsula, which today incorporates the modern nation states of Spain and Portugal, was known to the Romans and Greeks as Hispania. Over the centuries, before Roman involvement in the Iberian Peninsula, it had been settled by different waves of eastern tribes: Celts, Phoenicians, Greeks, Africans, and Carthaginians. It was the settlement in the south of Spain by the last of these that led to Roman interest in the area and ultimately to its conquest and integration into the Roman Empire, though the complete process was to take more than 200 years. Once the Carthaginian territories had been taken, those parts of Hispania became the two provinces of Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior, which in turn were later subdivided into further provinces. They became some of the wealthiest and most Romanized of the empire’s provinces, but the process by which the whole of Spain came under Roman rule was both violent and complex. Given that the Iberian Peninsula is Europe’s second largest peninsula, maintaining control required vigorous efforts, including Roman-sponsored migrations by the Sueves, Alani, Vandals, Visigoths, and other tribes. For example, the Visigoths first set foot on the peninsula in the year 416, where they were tasked with forcefully re-instituting Roman authority upon other Germanic invaders who had occupied the land. Initially, the Visigoths followed instructions to a tee, but as time progressed, it appeared there may have been reason to have been suspicious of the Visigoths after all. In 418, they were relocated to France, where they established a makeshift kingd 1. Language: English. Narrator: Colin Fluxman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/116408/bk_acx0_116408_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.