The influence of electrical fields on living cells represents an important meeting area for the physical and biological sciences, where there remains on-going fundamental research. During the last decades, different approaches have been developed to incorporate macromolecules into cells one of them is based on an electrically driven process (electroporation) where cells are exposed to high intensity electric pulses for short durations of micro-to milliseconds. This exposure leads to the formation of electropores, which enables the diffusion of small molecules across the membrane or the uptake of large molecules through mechanisms including electrophoresis. Electroendocytosis of Cancer Cells includes a study made to evaluate the effect of low intensity bipolar asymmetric electric pulses on the endocytotic activity of cancer cells comparing it with previous studies examined the influence of different pulse shapes on electroendocytosis.
In this book, I created a comprehensive diffusion of innovation model, called the Participative Diffusion of Innovation Model, based on a case study of a higher education institution who initiated a campus-wide information technology project for a couple of years. The first task in the Participative Diffusion of Innovation Model is conducting a concerns analysis of the adoption units. Also, I proposed a framework, the concerns matrix, to analyze the concerns of the adoption units. The concerns matrix gives systemic perspectives, which incorporate personal as well as organizational level concerns. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a model to guide facilitation of implementation of an innovation in a higher education setting. I hope the result of this study gives some insights into conducting effective diffusion of innovation projects in higher education settings.
Achieving optimum dental aesthetics is a difficult and challenging task. Fixed dental restorations play a major role in dental aesthetics. Metal ceramic and all-ceramic restorations are most commonly used in clinical practice. Metal ceramic restorations are known for its strength and reasonable aesthetics. Traditionally Metal ceramic restorations incorporate a collar which is in fact an aesthetic handicap, as the metal collar blocks light transmission through the tooth structure, darkens the root and cause discoloration of gingiva adjacent to the restoration. Generally all ceramic restorations are known for increased light transmission and diffusion. Absence of metal collar in all-ceramic restorations minimizes or in fact eliminates undesirable effects produced by the metal collar. However Zirconia in all-ceramic restorations has opacity and its optical behavior has been considered similar to metal. Both in metal and all ceramic restorations, the cervical region challenges the aesthetic achievement. Hence employing cutback in the substructure is considered to be a viable technique which can bring aesthetic improvement.
The aim of the book is to introduce the sugar industry in chemical engineering point of view. It cover covering theoretical and practical aspects of each and every operation involved in the present process of white sugar manufacture from sugar cane and deals with recent techniques established in various cane sugar producing countries of the world. Moreover different technological options have also been discussed, as for instance, in juice extraction from cane apart from milling, diffusion has been described in details and in the section on cane juice clarification various processes tried out have been dealt with although Sulphitation and carbonation processes have been discussed at great length. Every effort has been made to incorporate the latest developments in the field of cane sugar manufacture, that have significant bearing on improving productivity and quality of sugar in the this book.
Stock return predictability continues to attract an enormous amount of attention and yet the empirical evidence struggles to meet a general consensus. While a number of studies debate on the ability of economically meaningful variables such as dividend yield, term spread and consumption-wealth ratio to predict future stock returns, an important strand of the literature focuses on how to accurately incorporate the effect of stylized facts such as stochastic volatility and jumps on the data generating process of stock returns. However attempts have produced mixed results and mainly examined model specifications by using statistical measures. The economic advantage of using double-jump models remains largely unexplored. We find that, under both latent volatility and realized volatility measures, although jumps clearly affect the optimal weights, the pure diffusion model has better portfolio performance than jump-diffusion model, as stochastic volatility alone delivers the best portfolio performance. In addition, adding jumps in volatility yields more economic gains over the jump-diffusion model.
This in-depth research study discusses whether 3D TV will become a new trend in the consumers' living rooms or if it is just a hype that will fail to establish itself. The study contains both extensive market research as well as target group research among the American population. Both parts of the study deal with the market situation of 3D TVs within the United States in 2011, and an extensive analysis of both studies provides in-depth insight into a potential future of the 3D TV market in the coming years.In 2010 only 3% of US households had purchased a 3D TV. According to E. Rogers’ book ‘Diffusion of Innovation' whose theory is used as a guideline throughout the whole research paper, those 3% can be identified as belonging to the category of innovators. To incorporate other categories of the adopter categorization, the 3D TV technology has to face economic, sociological and technological challenges. Those challenges as well as the trends and developments influence the adoption of the technology. E. Rogers discusses these influencing characteristics in his work and groups them into five categories: relative advantage, compatibility, complexibility, observability and trialability. Based on Rogers’ book, this study determines in how far those characteristics favor or disfavor the adoption process of 3D TV and how current trends and developments within the 3D TV sector might improve this process. These conclusions are then used in a target group research in order to determine whether they are feasible and will lead to a higher adoption rate of the technology within the next 3 to 5 years.Consequently, this research paper can act as a guide for both TV manufacturers and TV content producers that invest or plan to invest into 3D TV. However, the main purpose of the study is to be the starting point for marketing managers of those companies that already have started investing in 3D technology. The research gives insight into how the adoption process can be improved, and it can, therefore, be used as a foundation for a successful marketing plan.
Innovation is the driving force behind economic growth. The knowledge that f- ters innovation builds on both systematic research and serendipity. The availability of new knowledge-be it technological or organizational (social)-is, however, - suf?cient. An institutional structure must be in place that enhances mutual learning among the actors involved and that stimulates cooperation, as well as competition. This recognition has inspired this volume, which focuses on national innovation s- tems and sectoral (technology) innovation systems that differ widely between co- tries, due to their diverse historical paths and distinctive cultural and societal f- tures. With regard to theory, most chapters incorporate a mix of endogenous growth theory and evolutionary thinking. Endogenous growth theory places an emphasis on the interplay between technological knowledge and various structural charact- istics of the economy and society, as well as on the results of economic growth. Concepts related to technology development, accumulation of knowledge on te- nology, and technology diffusion feature prominently here. In evolutionary thi- ing, and in particular coevolutionary thinking, the focus is on close links between technology and institutions, whereby the functionality of technology is in?uenced by certain dynamic interactions with institutional systems. Information technology turns out to be a clear example of such a development.
Master's Thesis from the year 2008 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 6.0 , University of Lausanne, 156 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The Swiss electricity market has been facing structural changes in recent years due to market deregulation activities. This development has been accompanied by the emergence of spot markets where electricity is traded between producer and purchaser. Since the price charged to the end-customer turns out to be more exposed to market prices of electricity, the need for derivatives with a risk management purpose arises. A more recent asset class such as structured products may be used as a risk management tool. This paper focuses on the pricing of various structured products with the Swiss energy price indices as an underlying. Since electricity has particular features that result in a peculiar stochastic process, the pricing of electricity derivatives cannot rely on traditional pricing formulas that have been developed for equity or commodity underlyings. Rather, there is a need for a dynamic model that captures the unique characteristics of electricity. In this paper, a new jump diffusion process is proposed and estimated that is able to incorporate the Swiss electricity price properties. Building on this model, a Monte Carlo simulation is applied that allows one to price differing electricity derivatives that are embedded in structured products. Using the option pricing results, the feasibility and attractiveness of a defined range of structured products is investigated. In order to include the special properties of electricity, new structured products are developed that are more appropriate as risk management tools. One of the main contributions of this paper is the practical approach of how to price structured products. Keywords: Electricity, SWEP, Swissix, Structured Products, Monte Carlo, Jump Diffusion, Derivatives pricing
This new edition of one of the most widely used course books on Islamic civilizations around the world has been substantially revised to incorporate the new scholarship and insights of the last twenty-five years. Ira Lapidus' history explores the beginnings and transformations of Islamic civilizations in the Middle East and details Islam's worldwide diffusion.